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Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier

Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplama gondii, a protozoan parasite found in uncooked meat and cat and dog faeces. Maternal-fetal transmission results from poor hygiene.

Infected neonates may be asymptomatic at birth but can later develop retinal and neurological disease. Babies with subclinical disease can develop seizures, significant cognitive and motor deficits, and reduced cognitive function over time.

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